Six rockets have been fired from Syria towards Israel overnight, according to the Israeli military.
Only three of the missiles fell within Israeli territory – two on open ground and one intercepted by air defence systems, the military said.
There were no reports of casualties.
Syrian state media later reported explosions in and around the capital Damascus, as Israel said it was retaliating with artillery and drone strikes aimed at where the rockets were launched.
Israel said it also launched strikes against a Syrian army compound, military radar systems and artillery posts.
Israel’s defence forces said the military “sees the state of Syria responsible for all activities occurring within its territory and will not allow any attempts to violate Israeli sovereignty”.
The Al-Quds Brigade, a Syrian-based Palestinian group loyal to the Syrian regime, claimed responsibility for the first three missiles, according to Lebanese channel Al-Mayadeen TV.
The group said it had acted in response to the recent raid by Israeli police on the sensitive holy site Al Aqsa Mosque.
An adviser to Syria’s president Bashar al Assad said the missiles were “part of the previous, present and continuing response to the brutal enemy”.
Meanwhile, in the occupied West Bank, Israeli security forces shot dead a 20-year-old Palestinian in the town of Azzun, health officials said.
Israel said its troops were firing at Palestinians who were throwing stones and explosive devices.
It comes as tensions continue to rise in the region, particularly in Jerusalem, with Ramadan coinciding with Passover and Easter.
More than 2,000 police officers are expected to be deployed in Jerusalem today.
Tens of thousands of Jews are likely to gather at the holy Western Wall for a special Passover blessing – the wall is next to the Al Aqsa Mosque compound, where large crowds of Muslims will be gathering for daily prayers during Ramadan.
More than 90 Palestinians and have been killed by Israeli fire so far this year, at least half of them affiliated with militant groups, according to The Associated Press.
Palestinian attacks on Israelis have killed 19 people in that time, all but one of them civilians, including two British-Israeli women who were shot to death on Friday near a settlement in the Jordan Valley and an Italian tourist was killed by a suspected car-ramming in Tel Aviv.